The ion insertion redox chemistry of manganese oxides has diverse applications in energy storage, catalysis, and chemical separations. Unique properties derive from the assembly of Mn-O octahedra into polymorphic structures that can host protons and non-protonic cations in interstitial sites. Despite many experimental reports targeting specific applications, a comprehensive understanding of ion insertion in Mn oxides remains elusive. In this work, we use density functional theory to study the electrochemistry of AxMnO2 (where A = H+, Li+, Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Zn2+ & Al3+) in aqueous and non-aqueous electrolytes. We develop an efficient computational scheme demonstrating that Hubbard-U correction has a greater impact on calculating accurate redox energetics than choice of exchange-correlation functional. Using PBE+U, we find that non-protonic cation insertion into MnO2 depends on the oxygen coordination environments inside a polymorph but that when H+ is present, the driving force to form hydroxyl bonds is generally stronger. Only three ion-polymorph pairs are thermodynamically stable within water’s voltage stability window (Na+ and K+ in 𝛼-MnO2, and Li+ in λ-MnO2), with all other aqueous ion insertion relying on metastability. Al3+ insertion into the 𝛿, R, and λ polymorphs may enable the full 2-electron redox of MnO2 at high voltage, but electrolytes must be designed to impede formation of insoluble precipitates and facilitate ion desolvation. We also show that water co-insertion stabilizes small ions in 𝛼-MnO2, while solvation energies and kinetic effects dictate water insertion in 𝛿-MnO2. Taken together, these findings rationalize experimental reports of mixed ion insertion mechanisms in aqueous batteries and highlight promising design strategies for safe, high energy density electrochemical energy storage.