Inorganic Chemistry

Transition Energy, Orientation Force and Work Done in Transitional Behavior Atoms: Formulating New Principles in Thermodynamics

Authors

Abstract

Studying basic parameters of heat and thermodynamics may explore new principles in science. Gaseous and solid atoms under transitional behaviors can explore remarkable advances in chemical and physical sciences. An anomaly in the first law of thermodynamics can be recognized explicitly when the transitional behaviors of atoms are in the study. By gaining transition energy, gaseous atoms undertake a transition state. Hence, the work performs by the gaseous atoms. Symbolically, a plus sign requires for it. A transition state occurs in the solid atom because of the absorbing transition energy. The performed work keeps the minus sign. To keep the orientation of electrons, gaseous and solid atoms experience different forces. In either case, transition energy changes the potential energy of the electron in an atom, thus controlling the orientation force. An anomaly resolves by changing the equations of internal energy. Gaseous and solid atoms introduce cooling and heat effects in elastically driven electronic states till the mid-states. A mid-state of a transition state falls between re-crystallization and liquid states. In generating cooling or heating energy, an electron executes dynamics by remaining within the occupied energy knot. Thus, constantly driven electronic states of atoms cause disorder and irreversible cycles.

Version notes

This new version is only with the highly polished form. The language of the manuscript brought fully up to the professional and native reader levels. The scientific and technical contents may keep the minor changes.

Content

Thumbnail image of Manuscript File.pdf